Mission used to be an incorporated village of Rouleauville before it became Notre Dame de la Paix, which is a Catholic mission. Eventually, it was just known as Mission. The neighbourhood was established in 1900 and was annexed to Calgary in 1906.
The neighbourhood is home to St. Mary's Cathedral, the seat of the Diocese of Calgary. It was founded as a sandstone church in 1889. The original structure was demolished in 1955 with the cornerstone of the new building laid in the same year.
Shops and restaurants line 4th Street SW, which borders Mission. The neighbourhood also hosts the annual street festival known as Lilac Festival. Around 80,000 celebrate the festival every spring.